Each virtual machine is called a guest machine. The hypervisor presents the guest OSs with a virtual operating platform and manages their execution. Multiple instances of a variety of OSs may share virtualised hardware resources. Hypervisors of Type 1 bare metal installation and Type 2 hosted installation Type 1 hypervisors are used in the implementation and deployment of cloud services, and they are associated with the concept of bare metal installation. This means there is no need of any host operating system to install the hypervisor.
By using this technology, there is no risk of corrupting the host operating system.
These hypervisors are directly installed on the hardware without the need for any other operating system. On this hypervisor, multiple virtual machines are created. A Type 1 hypervisor is a client hypervisor that interacts directly with hardware that is being virtualised. It is completely independent from the operating system, unlike a Type 2 hypervisor, and boots before the OS.
Currently, Type 1 hypervisors are being used by all the major players in the desktop virtualisation space, including but not limited to VMware, Microsoft and Citrix. Type 2 hosted hypervisors execute within a conventional operating system environment. With the hypervisor layer as a distinct second software level, guest operating systems run at the third level above the hardware.
A Type 2 hypervisor is a type of client hypervisor that sits on top of an operating system. Unlike Type 1, a Type 2 hypervisor relies heavily on the operating system.
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It cannot boot until the operating system is already up and running and, if for any reason the operating system crashes, all end users are affected. This is a big drawback of Type 2 hypervisors, as they are only as secure as the operating system on which they rely.
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Hypervisors in the industry The table below gives a few examples of hypervisors and the corresponding cloud service provider companies. Cloud service providers and what they offer Currently, there are a number of cloud service providers in the global market. Here are a few of them in the storage domain:.
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- Research Areas and Simulation in Cloud Computing?
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Research areas in cloud computing Cloud computing and related services are very frequently taken up for further research by scholars as well as academicians. As cloud services have a number of domains, deployment models and respective algorithmic approaches, there is a huge scope for research. The following topics offer a lot of scope for research scholars in the cloud infrastructure domain:. Once the problem is found after investigating different research papers and media reports, the work can be started.
First, research scholars or academicians need to focus on their own interests and skills. If a researcher is very good in mathematical modelling, then the research project selected ought to be in cloud cryptography, power optimisation, energy optimisation, security or any topic that has mathematical functions. In case of a strong background in algorithm design, research work can be done in scheduling, trusted architectures, load balancing or related fields. Once the research topic is selected, then there is the task of literature survey, without which no genuine research work can be done. In this process, research papers from prominent international journals are analysed in relation to the specific area that is selected for research.
If the topic is energy optimisation, then the research papers should be related to this particular topic in the domain of cloud computing.
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Some of the various definitions found in literature are presented in Table 2. Cloud computing is claimed to be an utility by Buyya et al. The authors describe utilities as a necessity to cope with daily routines, comparing cloud computing with commodities such as water and electricity. Cloud computing enables the use of various applications in one application software leading to multiple user accessibility and ways of usage Ratten, This report will refer to the definition Buyya et al. The idea of cloud computing can be traced back to the when John McCarthy proposed that calculations would be carried out publicly in the future Arutyunov, However, cloud computing service as it is known today, an on demand service for shared computer processing, came into existence in the With the tremendous development of the internet since the early two thousands, cloud computing has emerged as a side development from this Buyya et al.
In when Facebook was introduced, the software made it possible to share and store pictures, videos, etc. However, the intention of Facebook was not to offer a cloud service. At the same time NASA started to research large scale open network solutions. They successfully developed a cloud hosting service. Yang and Tate analysed 88 articles about cloud computing.
Thesis and Research Areas in Cloud Computing
They evaluated how many peer-reviewed articles exist per technological cloud computing issues. Yang and Tate evaluated the number of publications related to cloud computing by business issue. The total number of articles, relevant to describe business issues in their review is much lower 28 articles than the number of articles described in research for technological issues 88 articles.
The largest number of articles were found for privacy and legal issues 10 articles whereas there is little research on trust 4 articles and no significant research on ethical issues 2 articles Appendix 2. Consequently there is a research gap, taking the trustful provider-user relationship as well as an ethical perspective into account. Cloud computing changed the landscape of information technology Marston, et al. Nowadays many of the consumers daily routines shifted from physical services to online services. Many devices that once were necessary to master daily tasks such as a telephone or paper documents have been replaced by digital products Chou, Cloud computing made it possible for consumers to get immediate responses and access when requesting a service or information without delays Marston, et al.
This development saved time for consumers Fujitsu Limited, and lowered expenditures for businesses Marston, et al. Firdhous et al. One example is online banking. Elderly who have no internet connection have increasing difficulties to receive physical services Fujitsu Limited, Nevertheless, consumers are not only positive about these new developments.
Understanding cloud computing architecture requires deep technological knowledge, an average user do not poss. This threat is further enhanced by cloud service providers acting globally, but laws and regulations imposed by governments apply locally only Marston, et al. This leaves consumers in a state where they accept to use a service, they are skeptical about. The decision making process of using cloud computing services or not, is finalized by agreeing to the terms and conditions, required to use the service.
Kesan, hayes and Bashir find that consumers usually accept data terms and conditions, they do not agree with since service benefits outweigh the disadvantages of data security. However, terms and conditions need to be accepted in order to use the cloud computing service. Dhar and Simonson describe that consumers can be forced into making a decision of one the available alternatives. This process of having no alternative, but to sign a service agreement is an example for forced acceptance.
In the establishment of cloud computing, any platform the user wants to enroll needs a confirmation of the terms and conditions. There are situations in which consumers are forced into using cloud computing services. Typical examples of those situations are that banks charge money for a regular bank account, whereas it is free of charge to use an online bank account. A smartphone producer requires to create an user account on its platform to be able to use the smartphone.
It is also a broad area. One can write a thesis on cloud computing security. It is another wide field in cloud computing in which you can study various cloud computing platforms for your thesis and research work.
In this, you will get to know the current leaders providing cloud-based services like Amazon, IBM, Microsoft. Microsoft Azure is the cloud-based service provided by Microsoft. AppEngine of Google provides cloud services targeting web developers and web hosting applications.
2018 Trends in Cloud Computing
Mobile Cloud Computing is a type of cloud computing which involves the use of mobile devices. In this, the storage and processing of data take place outside the mobile device. It is one of the hot topics in cloud computing for thesis and research. The major advantage of mobile cloud computing is that there is no need for complex and costly hardware along with extended battery life.